Global oil refiners have upgraded processing units and adjusted operations to raise output of low-sulfur residual fuels and marine gasoil (MGO) to prepare for stricter shipping fuel standards that kick in on Jan. 1.
The new International Maritime Organization (IMO) rules prohibit ships from using fuels containing more than 0.5% sulfur, compared with 3.5% through the end of December, unless they are equipped with exhaust-cleaning “scrubbers”.
The shipping industry consumes about 4 million barrels per day (bpd) of marine bunker fuels, and the rule changes will impact more than 50,000 merchant ships globally, opening a significant new market for fuel producers.
Below is a summary of how top refiners have prepared.
The company plans total VLSFO capacity of 10 million tonnes a year (about 180,000 bpd) by 2020 and build a fleet of 100 barges over the next three years to supply cleaner fuels to ships.
China Marine Bunker [CMBPC.UL], known as Chimbusco, secured at least 4 million tonnes of VLSFO for the fourth quarter of 2019 and the first two quarters of 2020, and has started to supply all major Chinese ports from bonded storage.
At SK Energy’s largest refinery in South Korea, engineers are rushing to complete a new processing unit ahead of schedule.
The unit of SK Innovation (096770.KS) started supplying MGO from October and is building a vacuum residue desulphurization (VRDS) unit that can produce 40,000 bpd of low sulfur fuel oil (LSFO*) due online in March or April. Japan’s second-biggest refiner Idemitsu Kosan Co (5019.T) is increasing capacity for LSFO, but is also relying on blending to produce IMO2020 compliant bunker fuel.
Hyundai Oilbank has said it will sell VLSFO from November.
In the world’s largest marine fuels market, Royal Dutch Shell (RDSa.L) loaded its first LSFO cargo from its Pulau Bukom refinery in September, and Singapore Refining Company (SRC), a joint venture of Chevron Corp (CVX.N) and Singapore Petroleum Co [SPCS.UL], supplied its first VLSFO cargo in October.
Chevron said its VLSFO and MGO supply capacity in Asia could double in the next one to two years.
Vitol is building a 30,000 bpd crude processing unit in Malaysia to supply LSFO starting in May 2020, and IRPC Pcl (IRPC.BK) said it will produce 52,000 tonnes of VLSFO in November, making it Thailand’s first refinery to produce IMO-compliant fuel.
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (IOC.NS) has started supplying IMO-compliant fuel in India.
Uniper Energy DMCC operates two crude processing units in Fujairah that annually produce 3.6 million tonnes of VLSFO, including 0.1% sulfur fuel used in regional Emission Control Areas.
Brooge Petroleum and Gas Investment Co said it plans a 250,000-bpd refinery in Fujairah to produce low-sulfur fuel.
Qatar Petroleum said in October it has started supplying VLSFO at its ports.
Marine fuel supplier Peninsula Petroleum plans to double VLSFO deliveries to 600,000 tonnes by year-end in Europe and the Americas.
Gunvor Group will overhaul its refinery in Rotterdam in March to produce LSFO.
Most U.S. Gulf Coast refiners are able to process heavy crudes used to make IMO-compliant marine fuels, and have spent heavily this year refurbishing distillation units and cokers to process cheaper, heavy grades.
Motiva Enterprises overhauled its Port Arthur, Texas, refinery, the nation’s largest, this year so it can produce compliant fuels. This month, PBF Energy (PBF.N), restarted a coker at its Chalmette, Louisiana, refinery that had been idled nine years.
*LSFO stands for fuel oil with a sulphur content of between 0.5% and 1.0%; VLSFO for fuel oil with a sulfur content of less than or equal to 0.5%; and ultra-low-sulfur fuel oil (ULSFO) for fuel oil with a sulphur content of less than or equal to 0.1%. Refineries that lack the technology to product VLSFO outright, may produce LSFO and blend it down to IMO-compliant levels. See the table at for more information.
(1 ton of fuel oil is about 6.31-6.9 barrels, depending on the fuel’s relative density)
Reporting by Chen Aizhu, Koustav Samanta and Roslan Khasawneh in Singapore, Yuka Obayashi in Tokyo, Jane Chung in Seoul, Chayut Setboonsarng in Bangkok and Erwin Seba in Houston; Editing by Florence Tan, Tom Hogue and Sriraj Kalluvila